Breast cancer guideline – MoH




Steps of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE)
CBE should be done in a covered room with good light. A female chaperon should be
there if the examiner is a male.
Before starting the examination, it is necessary to explain the procedure to the
Breasts should be inspected in each of the following positions

  1. Arms relaxed at her sides
  2. Hands placed on the hips and pushing inward (contraction of the Pectoralis
    Major muscle)
  3. Arms raised over her head
    Arms by the side Hands placed on the hips Arms raised over the head
    Figure 2.3 Inspection of breasts
    The breasts should be inspected from the front and from each side.
    Pay particular attention to:
    • Breast size, contour, shape, symmetry
    • Skin changes such as erythema, dimpling, tethering or puckering, Peau d’
    orange, eczematous skin changes, visible lumps
    • Nipple – position, height, inversion, retraction, erythema, eczema, nodules
    ulceration and discharge

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