Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer

Evidence suggests that ejaculation frequency may be inversely related to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), a disease for which few modifiable risk factors have been identified.

Prostate cancer (PCa) accounts for approximately 15% of all new cancer diagnoses among men worldwide, and the burden of disease continues to increase globally [1]. While diet and physical activity may provide some promise for secondary prevention [2–5], there are no evidence-based recommendations to offer healthy adult men to reduce PCa risk. The few established disease risk factors—age, race, family history, and germline polymorphisms— are not modifiable [6].

Design, setting, and participants—a prospective cohort study of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study utilizing self-reported data on average monthly ejaculation frequency. The study includes 31 925 men who answered questions on ejaculation frequency on a 1992 questionnaire and followed through to 2010. The average monthly ejaculation frequency was assessed at three time points: age 20–29 yr, age 40–49 yr, and the year before questionnaire distribution.

Results and limitations

  • During 480 831 person-years, 3839 men were diagnosed with PCa.
  • Ejaculation frequency at age 40–49 yr was positively associated with age-standardized body mass index, physical activity, divorce, history of sexually transmitted infections, and consumption of total calories and alcohol.
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test utilization by 2008, number of PSA tests, and frequency of prostate biopsy were similar across frequency categories.
  • In multivariable analyses, the hazard ratio for PCa incidence for ≥21 compared to 4–7 ejaculations per month was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72–0.92; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 20–29 yr and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69–0.89; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 40–49 yr.
  • Associations were driven by low-risk disease, were similar when restricted to a PSA-screened cohort, and were unlikely to be explained by competing causes of death.

Conclusions—These findings provide additional evidence of a beneficial role of more frequent ejaculation throughout adult life in the etiology of PCa, particularly for low-risk disease.

Rider et al. – 2016 – Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer

In the original study published in JAMA in 2004  the finding where during 222 426 person-years of follow-up, there were 1449 new cases of total prostate cancer, 953 organ-confined cases, and 147 advanced cases of prostate cancer. Most categories of ejaculation frequency were unrelated to risk of prostate cancer. However, high ejaculation frequency was related to decreased risk of total prostate cancer


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